Usavršena priroda - Beogradski sajam (1953-1957)
Perfected nature: The Belgrade fairground (1953-1957)
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On the rubbles of the Yugoslav ancient regime after World War II, the new Yugoslav state was established as completely different from its predecessor in both political and ideological terms. The new multinational, federal and socialist state was governed by the Communist Party that split with the Cominform in 1948, causing the country to embark on a long-lasting process of forging its own version of socialism. To cast the image of the country and its nations capable of such laborious deeds, the regime needed a culture of representation which facilitated its ideological objectives and was able to reinforce the image of an authentic Yugoslav socialism as a progressive force. Perhaps the most conspicuous example of this elite-imposed and constructed culture, which clearly testifies to various ideological and political roles, is the New Fairground in Belgrade (1953-1957). The new Fairground complex was planned and built on a marshy terrain on the right bank of the Sava River that was consi...dered a 'wasteland.' The transformation of the terrain by filling up the bogs with hundreds of tons of sand has undeniably had an aura of an extremely powerful effort. The technical superiority of the enterprise sounded the metaphor of conquering and taming nature, which otherwise represented one of the key instances of the ideology of Yugoslav socialism. On the other hand, the huge construction of the Fairground commenced to stage a self-indulged and calculatedly constructed image of superiority of socialist Yugoslavia and its tremendously advanced modernization. The prestressed reinforced concrete domes of the new Fairground were designed to span great distances and to show ingeniousness of Yugoslav engineers and architects capable of constructing the largest spans in the world of that time. Not only was the Fairground aimed at beating the size, but also the nature: the whole structure, however, with its sculptured forms and superb technological elements, epitomized the socialist 'triumph over history' and the oblivion of a past that has remained obscure and undesired. Furthermore, by designing and constructing buildings and complexes whose structural features surpassed those of natural forms - like in the simultaneous re-construction of a completely new city of New Belgrade - architecture and engineering of the Belgrade Fairground vividly demonstrated some of the basic ideological underpinnings of Marxism, as re-adopted and re-appropriated by Yugoslav communists in the 1950s. In the outstandingly remarkable political and ideological transition of that time, the Belgrade Fairground almost literally embodied a basic Marxian premise that not only humane Yugoslav socialism and socialist democracy, but also human liberation and development could only be achieved by the transformation of nature, representing the political utopia of Yugoslav socialist humanism as completed naturalism.
Predmet teksta je analiza odnosa arhitekture Beogradskog sajma (1953-1957) i političke ideologije u kontekstu Jugoslavije 1950-ih godina, koji se posmatra kroz nekoliko različitih i međusobno prožetih instanci. Polazeći od konstitutivne uloge arhitekture u uspostavljanju jugoslovenske socijalističke demokratije, u tekstu se ukazuje na niz funkcija koje je arhitektonsko-graditeljski poduhvat podizanja Beogradskog sajma zadobio u javnom prostoru. Beogradski sajam ukazuje ne samo na značaj arhitekture u legitimaciji političke moći već osvetljava i neke od temeljnih ideoloških postavki na kojima je počivala konstrukcija jugoslovenskog socijalizma kao dovršenog naturalizma zasnovanog na antagonističnom odnosu emancipatorskih strategija i prirodnih granica.
Keywords:architecture / engineering / ideology / socialist democracy / Marxism / arhitektura / inženjerstvo / ideologija / socijalistička demokratija / marksizam
Source:Zbornik Matice srpske za likovne umetnosti, 2013, 41, 181-203
- Matica srpska, Novi Sad